Male Infertility

Male infertility is due to poor sperm quality, low sperm production and abnormal function or blockages that prevent the delivery of sperm as well as problems with sexual function (erectile dysfunction and ejaculation problems). There are many causes for male infertility, namely chronic health problems, congenital (birth) conditions, injuries, infection and lifestyle choices (smoking, drugs, alcohol) amongst others.

Approximately half of male-related infertility cases can be successfully treated. Treatments for male infertility include lifestyle changes, hormone therapy, testicular surgery, surgical techniques to retrieve sperm, and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a laboratory procedure used for couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) due to poor sperm quality. This has helped many couples with male-related infertility become parents.

Male infertility conditions can also be treated using minimally invasive/laparoscopic surgical techniques. Our Urology specialists may perform these surgeries including:

  • Laparoscopic Varicocoelectomy – To ligate the varicose veins (veins that drain blood from the testes) for men associated with varicoceles, in order to improve poor semen quality.
  • Vas Epididymis Exploration – Exploratory surgery to check for blockage of sperm flow.
  • Surgical sperm retrieval – Testicular sperm extraction (TESE), Testicular sperm aspiration (TESA), Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) and Percutaneous sperm aspiration (PESA) –  removal of small amount of tissue fluids from men with very poor sperm production and isolation of sperm for IVF treatment using ICSI.

Learn more about causes and treatment for male infertility:

Causes of male infertility

ICSI: What is Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection

Varicocele and male infertility

What is PESA (percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration)?